Reference and Citation Styles

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The APA style is suitable for psychology, education and other social sciences. The MLA style of referencing is suitable for literature, arts and humanities. The Turabian style is designed for all subjects, mainly for use by college students. The Chicago style can be used for books, magazines, newspapers and also non-scholarly publications Chicago versus Turabian: The Chicago and Turabian styles are almost identical. Turabian basically synthesizes those rules which are important for student submissions and other scholarly research which is not performed with the purpose of publication. It also omits some part of the publishing details and options that the Chicago style caters for.

APA versus MLA: There are differences with regard to spacing, usage of ‘and’/ ‘&’, margins, numbers, page numbers and footnotes. There are other formatting differences too. Both are popular referencing styles.

APA/MLA versus Chicago: The major difference between the Chicago style and the APA/MLA style is in the usage of endnotes or footnotes for citation sources.