How to Develop Research Questions

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The thesis defense is similar to an oral examination.

Introduction

The thesis defense is similar to an oral examination. However, there are various differences between the two. The chief difference in this is that the candidate has more knowledge as compared to the examiner. Here are 10 tips that you need to know in context with thesis defense:-

1) Be Humble

Everyone has the techniques, data, and experiments but there would be times when you face difficulty in answering questions .In such case don’t be afraid and don’t hesitate to answer “I don’t know”.

2) Being comfortable with the knowledge

It has been seen that teachers and thesis committee are very much severe in finding mistakes and crushing their confidence. You might have the best knowledge about the topic but a hint of fear can break up your confidence. So it is required to be comfortable with the knowledge you possess but try not to be overconfident.

3) Stop doing last minute activity

Doing last minute activity can seriously hurt your talking presentation for various seminars. It is advised to mark the talking presentation revision at least 2 weeks before the big day where the presentation will happen. The goal of revision would be to get the feedback from avarious colleague, friends, and family. This helps you make any changes in the talking presentation if required.

4) Delivering the presentation

The mantra for delivering the perfect presentation is Practice, Practice, and practice.While delivering presentation we can’t just read through the slide. For this purpose, we need to go through the slide and make the note for the same in our mind without peeking at the slides.

5) Explain Yourself

The presentation you would be delivering need to be explained to the target audience. You would be required to pinpoint the particular area where you are delivering the presentation, why you decided to choose this particular field, what the various benefits of this particular field etc. are. 6) Knowing the right audience

Knowing the right audience before delivering the presentation is very much important. This helps you to prepare the presentation well as you know what kind of audience is coming to watch your presentation. You could alter your presentation depending on the type of audience.

The thesis defense is more into the personality aspects rather than your oral examination, it simply depends on your skills of presentation, like how you can represent yourself with more attitude and dignity.

Literature Review: A big challenge

Introduction A literature review can be termed as the information you have gained about a particular topic through your past experiences as accordance to your field of study. It can be in any form such as a dissertation, thesis or an introductory section of a report. A good literature review should have awareness of various arguments, approaches, and theories .A literature review should be interlinked to your rationale and should have its own purpose. Literature reviews structure 1) Linking words

If we are gathering information about a topic written by various writers, then we need to link appropriate words like again, similarly, also.

2) Proper use of disagreement words

Linkers should be used when there is disagreement among opinions such as conversely, however, on the other hand, etc.

3) Summary

A summary should be included at the end of the topic that should be interlinked with the main topic or heading. Writing a Literature review Writing good literature review is not everyone cups of tea. It requires a clear line of argument and use of comments and critical notes. The guidelines are as follows: 1) A sound and clear introduction to the review should be understated including the rationale and the main points about the topic.

2) Use proper quotation where mandatory

3) Viewpoints should not be avoided as it will make the fact about the argument weaker.

4) A short summary should be included at end of each section.

5) Reviews should be written in a way so that it is very much clear and concise.

6) Personal opinions and emotive languages should be avoided.

Challenges in Literature review There are various challenges in context with Literature Review. Some of them are enlisted below: 1) Organizational structure is avoided.

Literature review needs to be in a proper organizational structure. Use of proper plan or mind gap can help you tackle this problem.

2) Landmark studies are being excluded

Literature review needs to be a connection with the thesis. This suggests that examiners don’t want to go through irrelevant topics.

3) Parochial perspective needs to be adopted Now a days it has been seen that a topic is been produced by particular country or region. This should be avoided. 4) Use of outdated material in literature review This is the biggest challenge with respect to the literature review. The final thesis needs to have updated material for its usage.

A literature review can be termed as the information you have gained about a particular topic through your past experiences as accordance to your field of study.

Introduction
A literature review can be termed as the information you have gained about a particular topic through your past experiences as accordance to your field of study. It can be in any form such as a dissertation, thesis or an introductory section of a report. A good literature review should have awareness of various arguments, approaches, and theories .A literature review should be interlinked to your rationale and should have its own purpose.
Literature reviews structure
1) Linking words

If we are gathering information about a topic written by various writers, then we need to link appropriate words like again, similarly, also.

2) Proper use of disagreement words

Linkers should be used when there is disagreement among opinions such as conversely, however, on the other hand, etc.

3) Summary

A summary should be included at the end of the topic that should be interlinked with the main topic or heading.

Writing a Literature review
Writing good literature review is not everyone cups of tea. It requires a clear line of argument and use of comments and critical notes. The guidelines are as follows: 1) A sound and clear introduction to the review should be understated including the rationale and the main points about the topic.

2) Use proper quotation where mandatory

3) Viewpoints should not be avoided as it will make the fact about the argument weaker.

4) A short summary should be included at end of each section.

5) Reviews should be written in a way so that it is very much clear and concise.

6) Personal opinions and emotive languages should be avoided.


Challenges in Literature review
There are various challenges in context with Literature Review. Some of them are enlisted below:
1) Organizational structure is avoided.

Literature review needs to be in a proper organizational structure. Use of proper plan or mind gap can help you tackle this problem.

2) Landmark studies are being excluded

Literature review needs to be a connection with the thesis. This suggests that examiners don’t want to go through irrelevant topics.

3) Parochial perspective needs to be adopted
Now a days it has been seen that a topic is been produced by particular country or region. This should be avoided. 4) Use of outdated material in literature review
This is the biggest challenge with respect to the literature review. The final thesis needs to have updated material for its usage.

How to Develop Research Questions

Research questions are paramount to any research; not because they provide you with the direction to conduct your entire research, but because they instantly provide the readers with an overview of what lies inside the research document and what exactly you want to prove through your research. Well-formulated research questions do not assure whether your research findings will corroborate with research hypotheses or not, but poorly-framed research questions can surely guarantee that your research has limited value to readers. Therefore, you need to be savvy while developing research questions. Here are the easy-to-adopt steps to frame research questions that suit your research perfectly!

Begin by framing general research questions First you should start with general research questions. Since you have studied relevant literature and found out the research gap, you must be aware about the existing knowledge of readers. Your next task is to brainstorm what your audience wants to know more about the topic.

For instance, suppose you want to conduct a research on “Health status of tenants and landlords”. You would forage extensive literature work to find the research gap. Imagine that you have found information gaps such as: Whether unaffordability to accommodation is linked to poor health Whether the relationship between house affordability and health varies for homeowners and renters. Whether homeowners are healthier than tenants

Now you will turn these gaps into research questions like: How is unaffordability to accommodation linked to poor health of tenants? How does the relationship between house affordability and health differ between tenants and homeowners? Are homeowners healthier than tenants?

Information gaps represent an easy way to produce research questions. Since these questions are derived from decision problems, they are likely to be useful to readers.

2. Implied research questions The aim of writing general questions is to initiate the action of framing implied questions. Below are implied research questions from the first general questions “How is unaffordability to accommodation linked to poor health?”

How is the neighbourhood? Do tenants have accessibility to fruit markets and grocery stores? Are they able to manage to get fresh food items? Are neighbours willing to help tenants?

Many PhD scholars wonder how they can be specific with such implied questions, but a good rule of thumb is that it is better to be detailed than not detailed enough. Generating general and implied questions might be burdensome for you. However, if you think deeply about a given problem from their perspective, you can develop these questions more appropriately.

Conclusion Formulation of research hypotheses is equally important as developing research questions. Research hypotheses will help you justify whether or not a particular research question is relevant to collect data. If no, you should simply drop the question. Research questions can’t be framed without research hypotheses. So you should make hypotheses before deciding upon the research questions.